Nutrition before, during and after endurance training is really important for full recovery of your body (muscles and immune system). Timing of nutrition should be acknowledged as well. I did review this NSCA article on endurance nutrition a long time ago (Bishop, P. A., Jones, E., & Woods, A. K. (2008). Recovery from training: a brief review: brief review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 22(3), 1015-1024) .
This is my summary in short:
- Fatigue results from thermal stress caused by dehydration, muscle glycogen depletion (carbohydrates), or limited blood glucose availability.
- Other consequences of endurance exercise are muscle damage, soreness and immune system suppression.
- Preparation prior exercise should consist of Hyper-hydration: before competition- 500ml of fluid 2 hours before and again 15 minutes before exercise and Glycogen loading: Carbohydrate feeding 4-6 hours before exercise: 200-300g of carbs meal.
- Carb supplementation 1 hour before exercise is still controversial.
- Supplementation during exercise: Fluid and electrolyte supplementation (sodium chloride electrolyte for maintain fluid balance, and absorption of fluids). Dosage: 15-30 mmmol/L sodium and potassium 3-6 mmmol/ L. Magnesium can be added as well.
- If training more than 1 hour a carbohydrate supplementation: 500ml of fluid per hour is best.
- Timing of carbohydrate ingestion
If training in hot and humid conditions consume 250 ml of a 5% of carb solution every 15 minutes. Card solution should consist of maltose, sucrose and maltodextrins. Adding protein to carb supplementation (1:3 ratio) can increase effectiveness of supplement and boosts the immune system. If training in normal conditions, consume carbs right after exercise 6-8 mmol/ kg. Liquid supplementation- easy to consume and rapidly digested. On the other hand, whole food intake after several hours - muscle recovery.
- Nutrition for rapid rehydration recovery
Sodium 20-80 mmol/ L
Potassium 2-6 mmol/ L
- Muscle glycogen depletion
5-7g of carbs / kg of body weight per day
7-12g of carbs / kg of body weight per day
10-12g of carbs / kg of body weight per day
- The metabolic window of recovery opportunity is 45 minutes after exercise with carb/ protein supplementation.